Global warming is still a source of worry today. Unprecedented rainfall, rising temperatures, rising sea levels, disasters, and even dryness are consequences of climate change. Floods and droughts are anticipated to become more common in the future, posing a major threat to agriculture. Agriculture is mostly reliant on the provision of land and water. The demand for land is growing due to the constant population increase. As a result, mineral wealth is grossly misused to sustain the food supply. Apart from that, weather shift has increased the risk of flooding throughout most parts of the nation during the monsoon season. This article discusses some of the most up-to-date strategies for making water logging and flood-prone terrain useful.
Flood refers to a downpour of water; in other words, water that appears to be pure and peaceful has become a flood and takes on a furious aspect. With its menace, it harms humans, animals, and crops. In both the Kharif and Rabi seasons, prolonged water logging hurt the crops. The poor family farm suffers as a result of this. Due to water logging, the latter primarily affects the country's eastern area. Assam, Bihar, Odisha, and West Bengal are among the states that make up the region.
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The difficulty of drainage in a plain or lowland environment, where water is stored, can be managed to overcome by using a raised bed pond system. By the scientific method, low terrain wet areas for fishing industry there is a requirement to construct a checking dam where the water level drops or drops in 4-6 months. Pumping rainwater into the pond has a positive impact on fish output. In flooded locations, enhance the manufacturing capacity of land and water.
Methods such as fisheries, Makhana, and water chestnut production, among others, can be used in conjunction with agricultural production. Below are the specifics of some of the more famous and agriculturally useful approaches.
Beds that is raised and immersed
There are many opportunities for grazing goats to be integrated into seasonal wet regions. For 3-5 months, a waterlogged region with a depth of 0.5-1.0 m is turned into alternate trenches and beds, enabling pasture growth. The beds are planted with both leguminous and non-leguminous types of grass. A total of 15-20 Black Bengal breed goats are used in this technique. The trenches are supplied with fish (10000 per acre). This can yield 90-110 tons of feed per hectare and 90-150 kilograms of meat per hectare every year. The water surface of the pits can provide a total of 2-5 t/ha of fish.
This outcome is being explored by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research's Eastern Research Campus. The model is being produced each year to generate a scenario of water infiltration, which is acceptable and beneficial.
Concept of integrated agriculture
A possible approach for ensuring food and nutritional security is the Integrated Farming System (IFS). The farming household can benefit from high production, the reuse of nutrients in the soil, and year-round work under this arrangement. Paddy, wheat, and vegetables can be grown in a total surface area of 1400 sqm, or 2000 sqm, on a half-acre plot. The remaining land could be used to combine duck and fish cultivation. This type can be seen in the state of Bihar's Vaishali district.
In this arrangement, two milch cows are allowed to be kept. The recovery of farm waste money can yield around 60.0 kg. 42.7 kg nitrogen, 39.6 kg phosphorus Amount of potash is obtained, added to that course's soil. Along with creating jobs, nutrient recycling positively impacts soil health. This strategy has shown to be very useful in areas with a lot of water.
The Integrated Livestock-Fishing System (ILFS) is a system that combines livestock and fishing
The following agricultural systems are appropriate for the area:
- Integration of fisheries and cattle
- Integration of fish and poultry Integration of Fish and Duck
- Combination of fish and pig, Integration of fish and goat
Fish animal integrated farming systems have the highest fish yield (5.50 t/ha). Following that, the fish-buffalo combination is expected to produce up to 5.3 t/ha of fish output.
A farming method based on makhanas
With Makhana, fish and water chestnut cultivation are common in Bihar's flooded districts. Water chestnut is a tertiary crop that can be harvested four times between November and December. Makhana can be grown as a pond or in a field cropping method in seasonal wet locations (water depth up to 0.60 m). The growth of Makhana takes about 4-5 months. When contrasted to perennial/seasonal water bodies (1.6 t/ha), the yield of Makhana as a cropping system is higher (2.8 t/ha). Makhana can be grown with less water using this method. Paddy cultivation can begin after this brief period. For flooded locations, this technology is a godsend. Compared to the paddy-wheat farming scheme, it boosts income by around 2-3 times.
Method of paddy-fish cropping
10% of the entire region (anywhere the slope is) is turned to a shelter zone in the paddy-fish cultivation system. It is important to emphasize that grass carp varieties should not be put into this system since paddy crop damage is great. This mechanism has been discovered to be capable of fully exploiting soggy circumstances.
Compared to fisheries alone, integrating fish with livestock/birds can enhance output by up to five times. Apart from goat and pig, it has also been noted that the development of improved cattle breeds occurs more of it in integrated farming methods than in traditional animal breeding approaches. This was also true regarding domestic chicken and duck rearing vs. the farming system method.
Water collecting from below the surface
Freshwater that floats above saltwater beneath the ground in coastal marshlands can cultivate Rabi crops and meet fishery needs using subsurface water gathering systems. Pump sets with a horsepower of up to 2 horsepower are useful for removing water from these facilities and preventing saltwater penetration. The material's depth should be limited to 5 meters in the sandy area beneath the earth. The SSWH will be implemented through a consultative approach. This could help poor farmers in wet coastal areas improve their financial situation.
Rice cultivars cultivated in flood zones.
Water from flash floods can immerse standing crops in water for ten days. The crop is severely harmed as a result of this. As a result, growing tolerant paddy varieties in heavily flooded areas before floods is helpful.
Agro forestry can help to rehabilitate flooded areas.
Waterlogged/swampy and lowland renewal requires the incorporation of forestry. In marshy places, the raised bed method is used for sowing saplings. Apart from bamboo species, Casuarina equisatifolia, Jamun, Eucalyptus species, Willow species, Shisham, Drumstick, Banana types are good for growth.